If you don't think you have enough time to go through the textbook and take notes, do it for the study guide. If you haven't read the textbook that much then I suggest the Barron's guide instead. It contains more detail but it will do a better job than Princeton for independent studying of the material.
As for what notes to take, just jot down the most important concepts/details. Asks yourself if it seems realistic that the makers of the test would ask you a question/expect you to know a certain fact. For major events focus on who,what,where,when,why, and how.
Methods for studying the notes vary. Memorize it in chunks and don't forget to go back over your notes for a specific chapter as you move on. As you memorize, try to form some connections between events and ideas of different regions and time periods [how they compare/contrast, change over time] The week leading to the exam should be devoted to taking practice tests and going over them!
Hope that helped! Good luck
Don't worry too much. I expected the MC to be really picky about details, but most of them weren't that specific.