A petroleum engineer can easily spend an entire career in the state of California. (Hint: try to get a job with Chevron.)
Overseas jobs typically demand higher salary due to "hardship". Plus, much of that salary can get preferential tax treatment, which translates to higher pay.
I earned a BSPE in 1982, and have lived and worked in the same Texas city (Midland) for that entire time, by choice due to family ties and regional preference. Turned down many opportunities for "advancement" by moving overseas or elsewhere in the US. Parlayed regional experience and numerous relationships into consulting business and eventual independent operator status.
Petroleum Engineering careers are not as streamlined as this forum would have you believe. There are all sorts of opportunities that can be pursued with that degree. Don't get hung up on a particular path until you get some experience in the oil patch. The more you learn, the more options become available. Good luck.