"Beyond a reasonable doubt and unanimous go hand and hand in court. Requiring an unanimous ruling in a civil matter is just nonsensical."
Civil court verdicts in all federal courts must be unanimous.
Civil court verdicts in two-thirds of the states must be unanimous. In the one third of the states, sometimes majority is enough. In others, super-majority is required. The number of jurors can be any number -- 6, 8 and 12 are the most common.
All federal criminal court verdicts must be unanimous.
Most (but not all) state criminal court verdicts must be unanimous. SCOTUS has held that state court criminal verdicts do not have to be unanimous under the federal Constitution. SCOTUS says 12 person juries are not required by the Constitution either.
But SCOTUS also says that a 5-1 vote is not allowed in state criminal cases. If the criminal jury is only six people, then it has to be 6-0 unanimous.
"@northwesty that is the beyond a reasonable doubt standard."
Unanimous/majority is one thing. Reasonable doubt/preponderance is another thing. How many people are on the panel is yet a third thing. There's lots of possible variations.
The ABA panel recommended no particular standard (beyond "being convinced") so long as it was a unanimous vote of a panel of at least three people. If it is a one person panel, they recommended a higher standard.
Unanimous vote of a 3 person panel is a lot different than a unanimous vote of 6 or 12 obviously.
True. Our current system produces more drop outs than graduates.
That suggests to me that things should be different. Very different.
The biggest insight, I think, is that we send way way too many kids to our existing model of 4 year residential college. Which is very expensive, has poor graduation outcomes, and isn't the economic job/career ticket that it used to be decades ago.
More community college. More technical college. More apprenticeships. Lower costs. While everyone needs more education in today's economy, the current college model (which is too expensive) just isn't what a lot of those kids want or need.
While colleges could certainly do things differently, a big explanation for the 50+% drop out rate is that many of these kids really shouldn't be there in the first place. But there's a lot of pressure to go to traditional college, and the more appropriate alternatives really don't exist or are respected.