Is the course necessary if I take the Ap Spanish lit test or can I pass the test without taking the class?
AP courses are never a requirement for registering for and taking an AP exam. Whether you can pass the exam without taking the class is up to you – how committed you would be to buying AP exam prep books and going through them on your own, and learning all the material by yourself on top of your other classes. Your natural abilities and background in Spanish will also be a factor, as will your skill at test-taking.
Why do you even want to take the AP Spanish Lit exam? The point of an AP exam is to score well enough so that a university will give you credit for the course. It has been my observation that most universities will not give any credit for an AP Spanish Lit exam, and if they do, it will be elective credit and not replace any Spanish Lit class in a major. Are you planning to major in Spanish? If not, you will never even need to take a Spanish Lit course in college, and therefore do not need to take the AP Spanish Lit exam.
AP Spanish Language (not Literature) is different, as some universities will give credit for a high score on that exam. However, my daughter’s university would not, and instead requires students to take a university exam to determine Spanish proficiency for placement.
AFAIK, there are no prep books for AP Spanish Lit, although for basic literary analysis, an AP English Lit prep book may help.
My observation is different. If the college gives credit for AP Spanish Language, they will usually give credit for AP Spanish Literature, although some may not give credit for both. With either, though, most colleges that have a foreign language requirement for graduation will exempt students who’ve a high enough score on either AP exam.
Many colleges AP credits don’t apply AP credits to the major, regardless of major. That’s not a reason not to take an AP exam though, as it may apply to gen ed credits, or as noted, elective credit.
Anyway, back to the OP. Yes, you can pass the exam without the course, as I can attest to first-hand. I would say, though, that it it helpful if you have had (or are currently taking) AP English Lit. Literary analysis transcends language.
Also note that the AP Spanish Lit syllabus has a very extensive reading list (link below), and you will need to have read most, if not all, of the works to do well on the exams, since the exam questions, unlike some of the FRQ on English Literature, refer to specific works instead of allowing you to write about a work of your choosing. Good luck.