Gerund vs. Infinitive?

<p>The museum IS SUBMITTING(a) proposals TO SEVERAL(b) foundations IN(c) the hope TO GAIN(d) funds to build a tropical butterfly conservatory. No error </p>

<p>The answer is D. This is one of those gerund versus inf. where "to gain" has to be "of gaining". How do you know if it's supposed to be gerund or infinitive?</p>

<p>In this case, it all hinges on the word "hope." </p>

<p>When "hope" is a verb, it takes an infinitive: I hope to go to Harvard.</p>

<p>When "hope" is a noun, it takes "of" and a gerund: I have little hope of going to Harvard.</p>

<p>I think because you have to follow the pattern of a gerund, with submittING in the beginning.</p>

<p>I could be wrong though.. im still learning.</p>

<p>It's idiomatic You never say: in the hope to something. It's always in the hope of something.</p>

<p>sikorsky,</p>

<p>does that mean whenever I encounter one of those ger. vs. inf errors, i look at whether the word before the ger/inf phrase is functioning as a noun or a verb? Does it always work like that?</p>

<p>^ No, it does not.</p>

<p>Wow, so there's actually an explanation for these kinds of things!</p>

<p>I learned more from this thread alone than I did from 12 years of English instruction.</p>

<p>Ok, if it doesn't follow any rule, then how do you know?</p>

<p>For me, I would never say, "in the hope to gain."</p>

<p>No, it definitely makes more sense as "hope of gaining."</p>

<p>And the explanation has already been provided [url=<a href="http://talk.collegeconfidential.com/1065338854-post2.html%5Dhere%5B/url"&gt;http://talk.collegeconfidential.com/1065338854-post2.html]here[/url&lt;/a&gt;], anyway.</p>

<p>^ but the explanation doesn't cover everything</p>

<p>My guide covers some basic guidelines and offers lists of verbs and what complements they take.</p>

<p>^Self-promotion ftw. ;)</p>

<p>
[quote]
but the explanation doesn't cover everything

[/quote]
</p>

<p>Well, of course not. But it's sufficient.</p>

<p>Edit:</p>

<p>Oh, wait. I missed the second part of your question:</p>

<p>
[quote]
How do you know if it's supposed to be gerund or infinitive?

[/quote]
</p>

<p>That might be better answered using Google, 'cuz I sure as hell don't know.
Sorry. :/</p>

<p>
[quote]
I think because you have to follow the pattern of a gerund, with submittING in the beginning.</p>

<p>I could be wrong though.. im still learning.

[/quote]
</p>

<p>Submitting is not a gerund in the sentence, so no.</p>

<p>Here is that section from the guide:</p>

<p>Incorrectly using a gerund or infinitive as a complement: When an infinitive or gerund is the object of a verb, we call it that verb's complement. Some verbs must take infinitive complements; others must take gerund complements; and some can take either. Some nouns also take infinitive or gerund complements. Follow these guidelines for deciding whether to use an infinitive or gerund.</p>

<p>Abstract nouns usually take infinitive complements. Some common abstract nouns are tendency, motivation, and desire. So, one would say that someone has a tendency to, for example, exaggerate things.</p>

<p>The object of a preposition is often a gerund. One says that they need help with getting elected. </p>

<p>(The following lists are adapted from here</a>.)</p>

<p>The following verbs take infinitive complements:</p>

<p>agree
aim
appear
arrange
ask
attempt
be able
beg
begin
care
choose
condescend
consent
continue
dare
decide
deserve
detest
dislike
expect
fail
forget
get
happen
have
hesitate
hope
hurry
intend
leap
leave
like
long
love
mean
neglect
offer
ought
plan
prefer
prepare
proceed
promise
propose
refuse
remember
say
shoot
start
stop
strive
swear
threaten
try
use
wait
want
wish</p>

<p>The following verbs can take an object and an infinitive, as in I will advise him to stop, where him is the object:</p>

<p>advise
allow
ask
beg
bring
build
buy
challenge
choose
command
dare
direct
encourage
expect
forbid
force
have
hire
instruct
invite
lead
leave
let
like
love
motivate
order
pay
permit
persuade
prepare
promise
remind
require
send
teach
tell
urge
want
warn</p>

<p>The following verbs take gerund complements:</p>

<p>admit
advise
appreciate
avoid
can't help
complete
consider
delay
deny
detest
dislike
enjoy
escape
excuse
finish
forbid
get through
have
imagine
mind
miss
permit
postpone
practice
quit
recall
report
resent
resist
resume
risk
spend (time)
suggest
tolerate
waste (time)</p>

<p>The following verbs can take a preposition and a gerund, as in We talked about stopping:</p>

<p>admit to
approve of
argue about
believe in
care about
complain about
concentrate on
confess to
depend on
disapprove of
discourage from
dream about
feel like
forget about
insist on
object to
plan on
prevent (someone) from
refrain from
succeed in
talk about
think about
worry about</p>

<p>Silverturtle, I'm a little confused.. You have "hope" under your inf. list. The question that I've posted has to be "hope of gaining". In this case, it's "gaining" which determines if it's inf or gerund, right?</p>

<p>^No, it's hope, since "hope" is being used as a noun.</p>

<p>...I think.</p>

<p>
[quote]
Silverturtle, I'm a little confused.. You have "hope" under your inf. list. The question that I've posted has to be "hope of gaining". In this case, it's "gaining" which determines if it's inf or gerund, right?

[/quote]
</p>

<p>My list is for verbs, not nouns. "gaining" has no effect on whether it should be an infinitive or gerund; the complement never matters in that way. </p>

<p>
[quote]
Submitting is not a gerund in the sentence, so no.

[/quote]
</p>

<p>Correct. "submitting" is a present participle there.</p>

<p>So what is the problem with the phrase? "in the hope to gain"
Is it incorrectly using the verb gain as an inf. as opposed to gerund?
Then, what is "hope" in this sentence?</p>

<p>"hope" is a noun there, so my list does not apply. And one might deem "hope" an abstract noun and thus think that it yields an infinitive, but we find an exception to that rule here. So there is no general rule that would have told you what the answer was. Most native English speakers could use their ears to figure it out, though.</p>

<p>It's sort of a combination of an idiomatic phrase and the prepositional infinitive rule. One idiomatically says, "in the hope of..."; and because "of" is a preposition and the complement would be the object of that preposition, we use a gerund as is indicated by that rule.</p>