In VA, the typical right of way line falls at the end of the sidewalk. I say typical because you have to check the plat. I’ve seen so many weird issues including the FAA claiming they own one of our roads because someone appeared to make an error on one map over 75 years ago.
It is in the city code (or state/town) where you will find the rules for who maintains keeping the sidewalk clear, grass cut, etc. not in the deed/plat. Technically, in our city, if you wanted to do something within the right of way (plant gardens) you would have to get a right of way use agreement. This almost never happens. The city isn’t going to come get you in violation.
However, that does mean what is in the right of way is public. It’s like when you put you trash can out behind the curb for pick up, it’s considered public and the police can go through it without a warrant. If you had a right of way use agreement, I assume the terms of who owned what would be spelled out in the agreement.
If the property owner owns the sidewalk/grass strip and there is an easement for public use, the details of what that entails would be in the easement. It may or may not be in the deed. It should be at least referenced in the deed and/or plat map, but sometimes those things are obtained and recorded separately in the courthouse.
And all that being said, I couldn’t imagine picking someone’s fruit or veggies out of a garden in front of someone’s house - public right of way or not. That just seems wrong to me even if it was technically legal.